We offer Conversation Analysis services using Jefferson Transcription notations. The following table has a list of symbols with their purpose of use in Jefferson Transcription.


Symbol Name Used to indicate
: Colon (s) Extended or stretched sound, syllable, or word.
_____ Underline  Vocalic emphasis.
(.) Micropause Brief pause of less than (0.2).
(1.2) Timed Pause Intervals occuring within and between same or
different speaker’s utterance.
(( )) Double Parentheses Scenic details.
( ) Single Parentheses Transcriptionist doubt
. Period Falling vocal pitch.
? Question Marks Rising vocal pitch.
↑↓ Arrows Pitch resets; marked rising and falling shifts in
° ° Degree Signs A passage of talk noticeably softer than
surrounding talk.
= Equal Signs Latching of contiguous utterances, with no
interval or overlap.
[  ] Brackets Speech overlap.
[[ Double Brackets Simultaneous speech orientations to prior turn.
! Exclamation Points Animated speech tone.
Hyphens Halting, abrupt cut off of sound or word.
> < Less Than/Greater Than Signs Portions of an utterance delivered at a pace
noticeably quicker than surrounding talk.
OKAY CAPS Extended or stretched sound, syllable, or word.
hhh.hhh  H’s Audible outbreaths, possibly laughter. The more h ’s, the longer the aspiration.
Aspirations with periods indicate audible
inbreaths (e.g., .hhh). H ’s within (e.g., ye(hh)s) parentheses
mark within-speech aspirations, possible
pt Lip Smack Often preceding an inbreath.


Laugh Syllable Relative closed or open position of laughter.
$ Smile Voice Laughing/chuckling talk between markers.